The construction of the fortifications of Cartagena de Indias develops parallel to the history of the city. The protection of the population was a constant concern both on the part of the authorities as well as its inhabitants, since Cartagena was threatened by pirates and enemies of the Spanish Crown almost since its founding.
The first defensive structures at the end of the XVI century were some simple trenches, pits and stakes, until Philip II charged Bautista Antonelli and Juan de Tejeda with the fortification of the ports of the Atlantic coast, among them Cartagena. In 1597 the primitive city wall made of wood and kindling sticks was erected, thus beginning a project that would not conclude until the end of the XVIII century.
The destruction caused by the attacks and the storms that recurrently damaged the city characterizes the evolution of the bulwarks of Cartagena, noted for their continuous reconstruction. In general terms it is possible to identify four major periods:
Bulwarks of the walls